This topic area covers statistics and information relating to COVID-19 in Hull including local strategic need and service provision. Further information relating to Causes of Death is given within Population.
Information relating to COVID-19 is being updated and released regularly. As a result, this page may not contain the latest available data until this page is next updated (see review dates at the end of this page). However, this page contains links to external pages (also see Resources at the end of this page) that contain more up-to-date information.
- Infections: Waves of infection have been experienced throughout the pandemic. The true prevalence of COVID-19 in the community is now difficult to identify due to a reduced testing offer.
- Long COVID: For some people, the symptoms of COVID-19 infection can last longer than the original 10-days, with symptoms of “long COVID” having a profound impact on individual’s everyday life.
- Impact: Since the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic in the UK, there has been a significant impact on the health, mental, social and financial wellbeing of the population.
- Vaccination: The success of the COVID-19 vaccination programme has reduced the need for population level non-pharmaceutical interventions however inequalities in the vaccine uptake mean that groups within the population are still high risk for adverse health outcomes as a result of COVID-19 infection.
The Population Affected – Why Is It Important?
COVID-19 and our response to it affected the entire population. This page focusses primarily on the direct effects of infection with COVID-19, but the indirect effects of restrictions to prevent spread are also widespread across the population. The effects of COVID-19 have been unequal. Those already in poorer health were disproportionately affected, as were those from poorer communities. People aged under 65 in the poorest 10% of areas in England were almost four times as likely to die from COVID-19 than those in the most affluent 10% of areas (Health Foundation).
The Hull Picture
Pattern of Incidence
The first cases of COVID-19 were identified on 29 January 2020 in York, and were taken to the Castle Hill Hospital infectious diseases unit. Over the course of the pandemic in the UK, there has been four distinct waves of infection which have been influenced by the emergence of new variants (namely Delta and Omicron) and the easing of COVID-19 restrictions.
The pattern of infections for Hull has followed the national pattern of COVID-19 cases although Hull has experienced periods of high enduring transmission.
The non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) including lockdown, social distancing and face coverings were introduced at various points of the UK Government’s response to try and reduce COVID-19 spread. A full timeline of the UK response has been produced by the Institute for Government.
As community testing was stood down on 1st April 2022, the daily confirmed COVID-19 cases no longer accurately presents the number of cases within the community. The Office for National Statistics (ONS) continues to provide population estimates on the current prevalence of COVID-19 within the community which conservatively estimates community prevalence is 2-3 times higher than the daily confirmed case count. For more information on the estimated prevalence of COVID-19 in the UK, the ONS produces weekly estimate reports at Coronavirus (COVID-19) latest insights.
COVID-19 hospitalisations have fluctuated throughout the pandemic in a similar pattern to the case rates for both England and Hull shown below. COVID-19 hospitalisations have included individuals who are admitted due to COVID-19 illness and those who are identified to have COVID-19 upon admission for other conditions.
Not all the patients admitted to Hull University Teaching Hospitals will live in Hull and a proportion of these patients will live in other local authorities (mainly East Riding of Yorkshire).
The patterns shown in hospitalisations follows a similar pattern to the infection patterns around a week delayed. The ONS survey reported a median delay between symptom onset and hospital admission varies between 1 and 6.7 days depending on age and whether the patient lives in a nursing home. Hospitalisation is higher in older age groups and those with underlying health conditions.
During hospital admissions, individuals were in isolation or within COVID-19 specific quarantine wards. Visitors were not permitted to visit unless under exceptional circumstances such as end of life visits. This has been reported to have caused considerable distress amongst families due to an inability to visit loved ones when unwell and potentially in the last few days of life.
Since the beginning of the pandemic in February 2020, there have been 177,977 deaths within 28 days of a positive COVID-19 result and 195,962 deaths with COVID-19 on the death certificate across the UK. For Hull, there has been 921 deaths within 28 days of a positive COVID-19 result and 942 deaths with COVID-9 on the death certificate. Please note, these figures are updated daily so check the latest UK Government figures here.
There are several risk factors for a fatal outcome associated with coronavirus including: chronic comorbidities, underlying respiratory conditions, older age population, diabetes, hypertension and obesity. The risk of death involving COVID-19 is also higher for disabled people according to statistical analysis by The Office for National Statistics. The rates of death involving COVID-19 of both disabled and non-disabled people significantly decreased between the second and third waves of the pandemic in England however in each wave, analyses identified mortality rates involving COVID-19 for more- and less-disabled people of both sexes remained higher compared with non-disabled people.
For some adults and children, coronavirus infection can cause symptoms that last weeks or months after the infection has gone. This is sometimes called post-COVID-19 syndrome or “long COVID”. Symptoms of long COVID include: extreme tiredness/fatigue, shortness of breath, chest pain or tightness, “brain fog” including problems with memory and concentration, difficulty sleeping, heart palpitations, dizziness, pins and needles, depression and anxiety, joint pain, feeling sick, diarrhoea, stomach aches, loss of appetite, high temperature, cough, headaches, sore throat, changes to sense of smell or taste, and rashes.
Long COVID can have a big impact on an individual’s life and may require referral to a specialist rehabilitation service or a service that specialises in the specific symptoms that an individual has.
In the four weeks leading up to 1 May 2022, an estimated 2.0 million people living in private households in the UK (3.0% or 1 in 34 people) reported experiencing long COVID. Seven in ten of those with self-reported long COVID (70% or 1.4 million people) said their symptoms adversely affected their day-to-day activities including just over a fifth (21.0% or 398,000 people) said their symptoms limited them a lot. According to the same dataset, an estimated 194,000 people in the Yorkshire and Humber region reported experiencing long COVID in the four weeks up to 1 May 2022 representing 3.7% of the population. Almost three-quarters (72.7% or 141,000 people) say their symptoms limited them a little or a lot. Please note, the ONS Long COVID study will be continuously updated so visit the ONS website for the most up to date figures.
According to a review conducted by the UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) in February 2022, individuals who have had one or more doses of a COVID-19 vaccine are less likely to develop long COVID than those who remain unvaccinated. Vaccination prior to infection has a lower association with long COVID, although studies have identified that vaccination after infection can ease symptoms of long COVID.
COVID-19 Vaccination Programme
The COVID-19 vaccination programme began in the UK on 8 December 2020 and since then over 142 million vaccinations have been given. The vaccines are delivered through two primary doses and a booster dose; eligible individuals (those over 70 years and immunosuppressed) are also offered spring boosters. For more information on the vaccination offer, you can visit the NHS website here. The COVID-19 vaccination programme was rolled-out across the UK by using an invitation-based prioritisation programme based on age and health risk.
Although individuals may not develop symptoms of COVID-19 after vaccination, it is possible that they could still be infected with the virus and could transmit to others. Several studies have estimated vaccine effectiveness against hospitalisation, indicating high levels of protection particularly after three doses. The vaccines (Moderna, Astrazeneca and Pfizer) offer high levels of protection (over 90%) against mortality for COVID-19 Alpha and Delta variants. The UK Health Security Agency are continuously monitoring vaccine effectiveness and publish regular reports here.
Across the country there are inequalities emerging in the COVID-19 vaccination programme uptake. Among those aged 12+ years in England, 93.0% of people have had their first dose, 86.9% have had their second dose and 68.3% have had a booster or third dose. Among those aged 12+ years in Hull, the vaccination uptake is lower, with 78.2% of people having their first dose, 73.1% having their second and 54.8% having their booster or third dose. Please note these figures are continuously updating and so for the latest vaccination uptake figures visit the UK Government website.
Inequalities in vaccination uptake are evidenced by the ONS research which identified third vaccination rates were lower in those who lived in deprived areas, those who identified as being from a non-white ethnic minority, worked outside the home for five or more days a week, or who had previously been infected with COVID-19 (using information from survey visits between 21 February and 20 March 2022).
Impact of COVID-19
The COVID-19 pandemic has been an international public health incident effecting all countries, people of all ages and backgrounds. Short term impacts of lockdown such as inability to see friends and family have somewhat dissipated as travel restrictions have lifted both nationally and internationally. However, longer term impacts such a health anxiety, community cohesion, skills, employment and the economy will have a lasting impact for a while. Further information can be found within a study commissioned by the UK Government from the British Academy, which details some of the long-term impacts of COVID-19 expected to be experienced over the next few years.
Research conducted by the Health Foundation has identified that the UK entered the pandemic with life expectancy stalling for the first time in a century and falling for some. The pandemic and response to it have further exposed the inequalities in our society. Some additional impacts that have been identified by the Health Foundation are:
- The pandemic has revealed stark differences in the health of the working age population – those younger than 65 in the poorest 10% of areas in England were almost four times more likely to die from COVID-19 than those in the wealthiest areas.
- Government restrictions, although required to limit COVID-19’s spread, have had wide-ranging consequences, creating a vast amount of unmet health needs and mental health problems, education gaps, early years development gaps, lost employment and financial insecurity.
- Some groups including young people, disabled people, some black and minority ethnic communities and care home residents have been more affected than others.
Further research conducted by the Health Foundation on the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the population is available here.
Strategic Need and Service Provision
Ongoing vaccination promotion of additional doses as recommended by the Joint Committee on Vaccinations and Immunisations (JCVI) and promotion of the ‘evergreen’ offer. The vaccine promotion should aim to reduce inequalities in uptake, particularly in high risk groups including elderly individuals, people with severe mental illness and learning difficulties.
Healthcare services will need to consider how services can provide “long COVID” symptom management – service to manage the symptoms but also understanding of employers regarding the difficulty returning to work.
Mental health and wellbeing services will need to consider the mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic both exacerbating existing conditions and consider treatment requirement for individuals with new conditions.
The health and social care system will need to support the hospital with system pressures including patient flow and supporting community care.
Many people in Hull may have lost employment or have financial implications following COVID-19 lockdown measures. The increasing cost of living and financial hardship will be a potential source of financial instability and stress within households.
It is likely that future waves of COVID-19 infections will continue to cause disruption, illness and deaths in the future.
Institute for Government. Timeline of UK government coronavirus lockdowns and restrictions. https://www.instituteforgovernment.org.uk/charts/uk-government-coronavirus-lockdowns
Coronavirus (COVID-19) in the UK: https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/
Office for National Statistics. Coronavirus (COVID-19) latest insights – infections: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/articles/coronaviruscovid19latestinsights/infections
Office for National Statistics. Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey technical article: waves and lags of COVID-19 in England, June 2021. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/articles/coronaviruscovid19infectionsurveytechnicalarticle/wavesandlagsofcovid19inenglandjune2021
UK Government. Coronavirus (COVID-19) data in the UK: Deaths in Hull. https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/deaths?areaType=ltla&areaName=Kingston%20upon%20Hull,%20City%20of
Office for National Statistics. Updated estimates of coronavirus (COVID-19) related deaths by disability status, England. https://www.ons.gov.uk/releases/updatedestimatesofcoronaviruscovid19relateddeathsbydisabilitystatusengland
Office for National Statistics. Prevalence of ongoing symptoms following coronavirus (COVID-19) infection in the UK. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/datasets/alldatarelatingtoprevalenceofongoingsymptomsfollowingcoronaviruscovid19infectionintheuk
UK Health Security Agency. The effectiveness of vaccination against long COVID: A rapid evidence briefing. https://ukhsa.koha-ptfs.co.uk/cgi-bin/koha/opac-detail.pl?biblionumber=64359
NHS. Long-term effects of coronavirus (long COVID). https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/coronavirus-covid-19/long-term-effects-of-coronavirus-long-covid/
NHS Your COVID Recovery. Supporting your recovery after COVID-19. https://www.yourcovidrecovery.nhs.uk/
NHS. Book or manage a coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccination. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/coronavirus-covid-19/coronavirus-vaccination/book-coronavirus-vaccination/
UK Government. COVID-19 vaccine surveillance reports. Data on the real-world effectiveness and impact of the COVID-19 vaccines. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/covid-19-vaccine-surveillance-report
UK Government. Coronavirus (COVID-19) data in the UK: Vaccinations in Hull. https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/vaccinations?areaType=ltla&areaName=Kingston%20upon%20Hull,%20City%20of
The British Academy. The COVID Decade: understanding the long-term societal impacts of COVID-19. https://www.thebritishacademy.ac.uk/publications/covid-decade-understanding-the-long-term-societal-impacts-of-covid-19/
The Health Foundation. COVID-19 impact inquiry. https://health.org.uk/what-we-do/a-healthier-uk-population/mobilising-action-for-healthy-lives/covid-19-impact-inquiry
This page was last updated on 10 June 2022.
This page is due to be updated / checked in September 2022.